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PARC for Scalable Diverse Model Selection

Here, we present a set of benchmarks for Scalable Diverse Model Selection. We also include our method, PARC, as a good baseline on this benchmark.

This is the code for our NeurIPS 2021 paper available here.

Installing the Benchmark

To install, first clone this repo:

git clone
cd parc

Make sure your python version is at least 3.7. Then install the requirements:

pip install -r requirements.txt

Finally, download the cached probe sets from here: 500 Image Probe Sets

Then extract the probes into ./cache/ (or symlink it there):

unzip -d ./cache/

Verify that the probe set exists

ls ./cache/probes/fixed_budget_500 | head

You should see a couple of probe sets pkl files.

And you’re done! If you want to create your own probe sets see the Advanced section below.


See for an example of how to perform evaluation:

from evaluate import Experiment
from metrics import MetricEval

from methods import PARC, kNN

# Set up the methods to use.
# To define your own method, inherit methods.TransferabilityMethod. See the methods in for more details.
my_methods = {
	'PARC f=32': PARC(n_dims=32),
	'1-NN CV'  : kNN(k=1)

experiment = Experiment(my_methods, name='test', append=False) # Set up an experiment with those methods named "test".
                                                               # Append=True skips evaluations that already happend. Setting it to False will overwrite.                                               # Run the experiment and save results to ./results/{name}.csv

metric = MetricEval(experiment.out_file)                       # Load the experiment file we just created with the default oracle
metric.add_plasticity()                                        # Adds the "capacity to learn" heuristic defined in the paper
mean, variance, _all = metric.aggregate()                      # Compute metrics and aggregate them

# Prints {'PARC f=32': 70.27800205353863, '1-NN CV': 68.01407390300884}. Same as Table 4 in the paper.

If you wish to use the extended set of transfers (using crowd-sourced models), pass model_bank='all' to the experiment and pass oracle_path='./oracles/all.csv' when creating the metric evaluation object.


If you wish to use PARC to recommend models for you, PARC is defined in We don’t have a well supported way for you to pass arbitrary data in yet, but as long as you pass in everything required in TransferabilityMethod, you should be fine.


If you want the trained models, they are available here: All Trained Models. Note that this only includes the models we trained from scratch, not the crowd sourced models.

If you want to create the probe sets yourself, put / symlink the datasets as ./data/{dataset}/. Then put the models above in ./models/. This is not necessary if you use the pre-extracted probe sets instead.


If you used PARC, this benchmark, or this code your work, please cite:

  author    = {Daniel Bolya and Rohit Mittapalli and Judy Hoffman},
  title     = {Scalable Diverse Model Selection for Accessible Transfer Learning},
  booktitle = {NeurIPS},
  year      = {2021},